My graduate training was in the lab of Dr. John C. Crabbe, where I assisted in developing the genetically selected alcohol withdrawal seizure prone and resistant mouse lines. My postdoctoral work was in the lab of Dr. John K. Chapin at Hahnemann University in Philadephia, using multi-single neuron electrophysiology to study motivated behavior in awake, behaving rats. I continued similar work with Dr. George V. Rebec at Indiana University, Bloomington, where I also began a collaboration with Dr. William Timberlake studying circadian entrainment by drugs of abuse. I am currently working with Drs. Sean J. O’Connor and Martin P. Plawecki, studying responses to alcohol in humans, using i.v. administration to achieve precisely control of breath alcohol concentrations.