6484-Spinola, Stanley

Stanley M. Spinola, MD

Professor of Microbiology & Immunology

MS 420
635 Barnhill Dr.

Indianapolis , IN 46202-5120
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Dr. Spinola received a B.A. from Brown University in 1974 (Biology) and a M.D. from Georgetown University in 1978.  He completed a residency in Internal Medicine and Pediatrics at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1982 and served in the National Health Service Corps from 1982-1984.  He completed a fellowship in Adult and Pediatric Infectious Diseases at the University of North Carolina in 1987, where he was funded by the NRSA mechanism.  From 1987 to 1993, Dr. Spinola was at the State University of New York at Buffalo as an Assistant and then Associate Professor in the Department of Medicine. He came to Indiana University in 1993 to join the Division of Infectious Diseases in the Department of Medicine and was named the Division Director in 1995.  In 1999, Dr. Spinola was named the first David H. Jacobs Professor of Infectious Diseases; he became Chair of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology in October 2010 and is currently a Professor of Medicine, Microbiology and Immunology and Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. He has been NIH funded from 1990 through 2021. He is a member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation and a Fellow in the American Academy of Microbiology and in the Infectious Diseases Society of America.  He served for 2 terms as a Member and Chair of the Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Review Committee, a standing study section of NIAID, and played a major role in organizing the Biennial International Symposia on Haemophilus ducreyi Pathogenesis for over  20 years.  He has served as primary mentor for 7 graduate students, 7 ID fellows, 6 PhD postdoctoral fellows, 20 short term trainees, and 5 faculty members for Developmental Awards, K08 or K22 awards. He was the recipient of the  Indiana University School of Medicine 2017 Basic Science Excellence in Faculty Mentoring Award.



Key Publications

Recent publications (since 2015)

  1. Trombley MP, Post DM, Rinker SD, Reinders LM, Fortney KR, Zwickl BW, Janowicz DM, Baye FM, Katz BP, Spinola SM, Bauer ME.  Phosphoethanolamine transferase LptA in Haemophilus ducreyi modifies Lipid A and contributes to human defensin resistance in vitro. PLoS One 2015; Apr 22;10(4):e0124373.m PMCID: PMC4406763
  2. van Rensburg JJ, Fortney KR, Chen L, Kreiger A, Lima BP, Wolfe AJ, Katz BP, Zhang Z-Y, Spinola SM. Development and validation of a high-throughput cell-based screen to identify activators of a bacterial two-component signal transduction system. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015; 59: 3789-3799. PMCID: PMC25870061
  3. Gangaiah D, Webb KM, Humphreys TL, Fortney KR, Toh E, Tai A, Katz SS, Pillay A, Chen C-Y, Roberts SA, Munson, RS, Jr., Spinola SM. Haemophilus ducreyi cutaneous ulcer strains are nearly identical to Class I genital ulcer strains. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 2015; July 6; 9(7): e0003918. PMCID: PMC4492979
  4. Holley C, Zhang X, Fortney KR, Ellinger S, Johnson P, Baker B, Liu Y, Janowicz DM, Katz BP, Munson, RS, Jr., Spinola SM. DksA and (p)ppGpp have unique and overlapping contributions to Haemophilus ducreyi pathogenesis in humans. Infect. Immun. 2015; 83: 3281-3292. PMCID: PMC4496623
  5.    *van Rensburg JJ, Lin H, Gao X, Toh E, Fortney KR, Ellinger S, Zwickl B, Janowicz DM, Katz BP, Nelson DE, Dong Q, Spinola SM. The human skin microbiome associates with the outcome of and is influenced by bacterial infection. mBio. 2015;6(5). doi: 10.1128/mBio.01315-15. PMCID: PMC4600114 * Featured in The Scientist, 9/6/15, mBiosphere 9/15/15, and Microbe 2015. 10: 411
  6. Gangaiah D, Marinov GK, Roberts SA, Robson J, Spinola SM. Draft whole-genome sequence of the Haemophilus ducreyi strain AUSPNG1 isolated from a cutaneous ulcer of a child from Papua New Guinea. Genome Announc. 2016 Feb 4;4(1). pii: e01661-15. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.01661-15. PMCID: PMC4742684
  7. Gangaiah D, Zhang X, Baker B, Fortney KR, Holley C, Munson, RS, Jr., Liu Y, Spinola SM. Haemophilus ducreyi seeks alternative carbon sources and adapts to nutrient stress and anaerobiosis during experimental infection of human volunteers. Infect. Immun. 2016; 84: 1514-1525. PMCID: PMC4862733
  8. Singer M, Li W, Morré SA, Ouburg S, Spinola, SM. Host polymorphisms in TLR9 and IL10 are associated with the outcomes of experimental Haemophilus ducreyi infection in human volunteers.  J. Infect. Dis. 2016; 214: 489-95. PMCID: PMC4936646
  9. Gangaiah D, Spinola SM. Haemophilus ducreyi cutaneous ulcer strains diverged from both class I and class II genital ulcer strains: implications for epidemiological studies. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 2016 Dec 27;10(12):e0005259. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005259.  PMCID: PMC5222509
  10. Houinei W, Godornes C, Kapa A, Mooring EQ, González-Beiras C, Knauf S, Watup R, Paru R, Advent P, Bieb S, Sanz S, Spinola SM, Lukehart SA, Mitjà O. Haemophilus ducreyi DNA is detectable on the skin of asymptomatic children, flies and fomites in villages of Papua New Guinea. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 May 10;11(5):e0004958. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004958. PMCID: PMC5425006
  11.  Gangaiah D, Raterman EL, Wu H, Fortney KR, Gao H, Liu Y, Jerse AE, Spinola SM. Both MisR (CpxR) and MisS (CpxA) Are Required for Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infection in a Murine Model of Lower Genital Tract Infection. Infection and immunity. 2017;85(9). doi: 10.1128/IAI.00307-17. PubMed PMID: 28652307.
  12. Dbeibo L, van Rensburg J, Smith S, Fortney KR, Gangaiah D, Gao H, Marzoa J, Liu Y, Mobley H, Spinola SM. Evaluation of CpxRA as a therapeutic target for uropathogenic Escherichia coli  Infection and Immunity. 2018; 86(3). pii: e00798-17. PMCID: PMC5820967
  13. Grant JC, * González-Beiras C, Amick KM, Fortney KR, Gangaiah D, Humphreys TL, Mitjà O, Abecasis A, Spinola SM. Multiple class I and class II Haemophilus ducreyi strains cause cutaneous ulcers in children on an endemic island. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2018 67:1768-1774. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy343. PMCID:PMC6233678

Titles & Appointments

  • Professor of Microbiology & Immunology
  • Professor of Medicine
  • Professor of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
  • Chair, Department of Microbiology and Immunology
  • Professor of Medicine, Microbiology, Immunology, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
  • Former Director Division of Infectious Diseases 1995-2010
  • Former David H. Jacobs Professor of Medicine
  • Education
    1982 RES University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
    1978 MD Georgetown University
    1974 BA Brown University
  • Research

    The Spinola laboratory focuses on the pathogenesis of and host response to the bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi in an experimental model of human infection and the etiology of cutaneous ulcers in children who live in the tropics.  

    H. ducreyi causes painful cutaneous leg ulcers in children in the tropics and the genital ulcer disease chancroid in adults, which facilitates the transmission of HIV-1.  The laboratory developed a model in which human volunteers are infected on the skin of the arm with the bacterium that is relevant to both syndromes. Features of the model include a low dose required for infection (1 to 100 CFU) and a clinical course and a cutaneous immune response that mimics naturally occurring disease. In both experimental and natural infection, H. ducreyi resides in an abscess, and the primary mechanism by which the organism causes disease is evasion of phagocytosis. One major project in the laboratory is to determine a molecular interaction network between H. ducreyi and the host on a transcriptional level using RNA-sequencing and the metabolomic consequences of this interaction. Preliminary data indicate that H. ducreyi is exploiting the metabolic environment shaped by the host immune response by utiizing alternative carbon sources such as vitamin C and adapting to anaerobiosis in vivo.  Another major project is to try to understand how H. ducreyi causes leg ulcers in children and by microbiome analysis discover other agents that cause this syndrome.  There is currently 1 technician and 1 post doctoral fellow in the laboratory. New trainees will be exposed to molecular biology, immunology, cell biology, microbiome research, and the methods and ethics of human research.

  • Publications
    Draft Whole-Genome Sequence of Haemophilus ducreyi Strain AUSPNG1, Isolated from a Cutaneous Ulcer of a Child from Papua New Guinea.
    Gangaiah D; Marinov GK; Roberts SA; Robson J; Spinola SM; Genome announcements 2016 Feb 4
    Host Polymorphisms in TLR9 and IL10 Are Associated With the Outcomes of Experimental Haemophilus ducreyi Infection in Human Volunteers.
    Singer M; Li W; Morré SA; Ouburg S; Spinola SM; The Journal of infectious diseases 2016 Apr 27
    Haemophilus ducreyi Seeks Alternative Carbon Sources and Adapts to Nutrient Stress and Anaerobiosis during Experimental Infection of Human Volunteers.
    Gangaiah D; Zhang X; Baker B; Fortney KR; Gao H; Holley CL; Munson RS Jr; Liu Y; Spinola SM; Infection and immunity 2016 Apr 22
  • Professional Organizations
    Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society
    American Academy of Microbiology
    American Society for Clinical Investigation
    American Society for Microbiology
    Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • Board Certifications
    American Board of Internal Medicine - Infectious Disease
    American Board of Pediatrics - Pediatrics
    American Board of Internal Medicine - Internal Medicine
  • Clinical Interests

    Infectious Diseases 

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