Bowen Center for Health Workforce Research

Health Workforce Research Projects

Insights provided by Bowen Center for Health Workforce Research and Policy are vital to informing health workforce development and planning efforts. The Bowen Center at IU School of Medicine is engaged in research that serves to inform health policy, improve healthcare delivery, and promote population health. A large portion of the center’s current research focuses on access to care and health care delivery models, including models for inter-professional education and inter-collaborative practice.

Putting the Smile into Primary Care

As part of the “Putting the Smile into Primary Care: Developing interprofessional education and collaborative practice strategies for the integration of oral health into primary care” program, an interdisciplinary team of researchers from the Indiana University School of Dentistry, IU School of Medicine, and the Indiana University Center for Interprofessional Education and Practice work collaboratively to develop a new, interprofessional training program for dental hygienists and family medicine residents.

The Impact of State Policy on Access and Health at Federally Qualified Health Centers

Previously, Bowen Center researchers examined the impact of state dental hygiene policy on dental service availability, access and oral health at Federally Qualified Health Centers. The center is now in the development phase of a study to examine the impact of state policies for other professions on additional aspects of health service delivery and quality measures within Federally Qualified Health Centers.

Maxey, H., Farrell, C., & Gwozdek, A. (2017). Exploring Current and Future Roles of Non-Dental Professionals: Implications for Dental Hygiene Education. Journal of Dental Education

Fried, J., Maxey, H., Battani, K., Gurenlian, J A., Byrd, T., Brunick A., (2017). Knowledge, Skills, and Reform: Preparing the Future Dental Hygiene Workforce. Journal of Dental Education

Williams, J.N., Maxey, H. (2017). Planning for Indiana’s Dental Workforce: Challenges and Opportunities. The Journal of the Indiana Dental Association, Winter 2017 96(1)

Maxey, H., Randolph, C.R. (2016). Oral health professionals well versed in access-to-care health policy can serve as important advocates for at-risk populations. The Journal of Professional Excellence Dimensions of Dental Hygiene, October 2016, 3(10) 24-27

Norwood, C. W., Maxey, H. L., Randolph, C., Gano, L., & Kochhar, K. (2016). Administrative Challenges to the Integration of Oral Health With Primary Care: A SWOT Analysis of Health Care Executives at

Maxey, H. L., Norwood, C. W., & Liu, Z. (2016). State policy environment and the dental safety net: a case study of professional practice environments’ effect on dental service availability in Federally Qualified Health Centers. J Public Health Dent, 76(4), 295-302. doi:10.1111/jphd.12155

Norwood, C. W., Biviji-Sharma, R., Knotts, A., Omenka, I., Stone, C., & Purviance, D. (2015). Fighting Prescription Drug Abuse Through State Policy: The Role of Nursing in Successful Implementation. J Addict Nurs, 26(4), 203-207. doi:10.1097/JAN.0000000000000097

Norwood, C. W., Maxey, H. L., Randolph, C., Gano, L., & Kochhar, K. (2016). Administrative Challenges to the Integration of Oral Health With Primary Care: A SWOT Analysis of Health Care Executives at Federally Qualified Health Centers. J Ambul Care Manage. doi:10.1097/JAC.0000000000000151

Maxey, H. L., & Weaver, D. L. (2016). Oral Health and Primary Care: Exploring Integration Models and Their Implications for Dental Hygiene Practice. International Journal of Evidence-Based Practice for the Dental Hygienist, 2(3), 196-202. doi:10.11607/ebh.74

Neal, C. A., Wright, E. R., & Norwood, C. W. (2016). A qualitative analysis of prescribers’ and dispensers’ views on improving prescription drug monitoring programs. Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy. doi:10.1016/j.sapharm.2016.12.002

Norwood, C. W., & Wright, E. R. (2016). Integration of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) in pharmacy practice: Improving clinical decision-making and supporting a pharmacist’s professional judgment. Res Social Adm Pharm, 12(2), 257-266. doi:10.1016/j.sapharm.2015.05.008

Norwood, C. W., & Wright, E. R. (2016). Promoting consistent use of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) in outpatient pharmacies: Removing administrative barriers and increasing awareness of Rx drug abuse. Res Social Adm Pharm, 12(3), 509-514. doi:10.1016/j.sapharm.2015.07.008

Norwood, C. W., Biviji-Sharma, R., Knotts, A., Omenka, I., Stone, C., & Purviance, D. (2015). Fighting Prescription Drug Abuse Through State Policy: The Role of Nursing in Successful Implementation. J Addict Nurse, 26(4), 203-207. doi:10.1097/JAN.0000000000000097

Bowen Center for Health Workforce Research & Policy. (2017). Data Report: 2016 Pharmacist’s Data Report. Indiana University School of Medicine. doi: http://hdl.handle.net/1805/11836

Bowen Center for Health Workforce Research & Policy. (2016). Data Report: 2016 Physician’s Data Report: Indiana University School of Medicine. doi: http://hdl.handle.net/1805/9653

Bowen Center for Health Workforce Research & Policy. (2016). Data Report: 2015 Nursing Data Report. Indiana University School of Medicine. doi: http://hdl.handle.net/1805/9688

Bowen Center for Health Workforce Research & Policy. (2016). Data Report: 2016 Physician’s Assistant Data Report. Indiana University School of Medicine. doi: http://hdl.handle.net/1805/11792

Bowen Center for Health Workforce Research & Policy. (2016). Data Report: 2016 Oral Health Data Report. Indiana University School of Medicine. doi: http://hdl.handle.net/1805/11242

Bowen Center for Health Workforce Research & Policy. (2016). Policy Report: Physician’s Policy Fact Sheet. Indiana University School of Medicine. doi: http://hdl.handle.net/1805/11486

Sheff, Z., Nowak, C., Maxey, H. (2015). Data Report: 2012 Indiana Pharmacist Workforce. Health Workforce Studies Program. Indiana University School of Medicine. doi: http://hdl.handle.net/1805/6479

Norwood, C. W., & Randolph, C. (2015). Policy Report: 2012 Indiana Pharmacist Workforce. Health Workforce Studies Program: Indiana University School of Medicine. doi: http://hdl.handle.net/1805/6493

Maxey, H., Randolph, C. (2015). Policy Report: 2014 Indiana Dentist Workforce. Health Workforce Studies Program, Indiana University School of Medicine. doi: http://hdl.handle.net/1805/6506

Sheff, Z., Nowak, C. Maxey, H. (2015). Data Report: 2014 Indiana Dentist Workforce. Health Workforce Studies Program: Indiana University School of Medicine. doi: http://hdl.handle.net/1805/6435

Maxey, H. L., Norwood, C. W., Walters, S. J., & Sheff, Z. (2013). 2013 Indiana National Health Service Corps Project: Recruitment, Retention & Evaluation. Retrieved from Indianapolis, IN: http://hdl.handle.net/1805/4924

Norwood, C., Randolph, C., Maxey, H. (2015). Policy Report: 2013 Indiana’s Nursing Workforce. Health Workforce Studies Program: Indiana University School of Medicine. doi: http://hdl.handle.net/1805/6465

Sheff, Z., Nowak, C. Maxey, H. (2015). Data Report: 2012 Indiana Substance Abuse Workforce. Health Workforce Studies Program: Indiana University School of Medicine. doi: http://hdl.handle.net/1805/6467

Sheff, Z., Nowak, C., Maxey, H., Norwood, C., Randolph, C., Kelley, T. (2015). Data Report: 2013 Indiana Nursing Workforce. Health Workforce Studies Program: Indiana University School of Medicine. doi: http://hdl.handle.net/1805/5957

Norwood, C., Maxey, H., Kelley, T. (2015). Policy report: 2013 Indiana Physician Workforce. Health Workforce Studies Program: Indiana University School of Medicine. doi: http://hdl.handle.net/1805/5738

Sheff, Z., Nowak, C., Maxey, H., Kelley, T. (2014). Data Report: 2013 Indiana Physician Workforce. Health Workforce Studies Program: Indiana University School of Medicine. doi: http://hdl.handle.net/1805/5790

Maxey, H. L. (2014). Understanding the influence of state policy environment on dental service availability, access, and oral health in america’s medically underserved communities (Order No. 3668035). ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (No. 1647472920). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1805/5993

Sheff, Z., Maxey, H., Barclay, J., Banti, S. (2014). Data Report: 2012 Indiana Mental Health Professional Licensure Survey. Health Workforce Studies Program: Indiana University School of Medicine. doi: http://hdl.handle.net/1805/5434

Maxey, H., Norwood, C. (2014). Policy Report: 2012 Indiana Mental Health Workforce. Health Workforce Studies Program: Indiana University School of Medicine. doi: http://hdl.handle.net/1805/5435

Nowak, C. Maxey, H. (2013). Indiana County Fact Sheets. Health Workforce Studies Program. Indiana University School of Medicine. doi: http://hdl.hndle.net/1805/6436

Maxey, H., Malcom, A., Norwood, C., Sheff, Z., & Walters, S. (2012). Indiana Primary Health Care: Description, Distribution, Challenges, & Strategic Recommendations to Empowered Decision Making. IU Center for Health Policy, Indiana University Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health. doi: http://hdl.handle.net/1805/7232

Maxey, H. (2016). Indiana Workforce Data Initiatives. Oral Presentation given to the Pennsylvania Department of Health

Maxey, H. (2016). Long Term Care Workforce in Indiana. Oral Presentation given at the LeadingAge Indiana Fall Conference

Maxey, H. (2016). Merging For Change. Oral presentation given at the Wisconsin Oral Health Conference

Maxey, H. (2016). Oral Health Integration. Oral presentation given at the 2016 Wisconsin Oral Health Conference

Maxey, H. (2016). Oral Health Integration. Oral presentation given at the 2016 Oral Health Colorado Conference

Maxey, H. (2016). Governor’s Health Workforce Council. Oral presentation given to the Medicaid Advisory Committee

Maxey, H. (2016). Analyzing New Models for Diabetes Care. Oral presentation given at the AAMC Health Workforce Research Conference

Maxey, H. (2016). A Workforce Model for the Integration of Oral Health with Primary Care: Leveraging an Existing Workforce to Expand the Primary Care Team. Presentation given to the 12th Annual AAMC Health Workforce Research Conference, Chicago, IL.

Maxey, H. (2016). Primary Care Down the Road. Presentation at The Indiana AHEC Statewide Meeting

Norwood, C. W., Maxey, H. L., & Randolph, C. (2016) Leveraging Existing Workforce Data in Policy Analysis: The Case of HIV in Scott County. Paper presented at the 12th Annual AAMC Health Workforce Research Conference, Chicago, IL.

Norwood, C. W., Maxey, H. L., & Randolph, C. (2016) Leveraging Existing Workforce Data in Policy Analysis: The Case of HIV in Scott County. Paper presented at the 12th Annual AAMC Health Workforce Research Conference, Chicago, IL.

Maxey, H., & Norwood, C. (2016). Indiana Nursing Workforce Data. Oral presentation given to the Indiana State Nurses Association

Maxey, H. (2015). Indiana Health Care Workforce Policy Academy: Building a Transformed Health Care Workforce: Moving from Planning to Implementation. Oral presentation to the National Governor’s Association, Washington, D.C.

Maxey, H. (2015). Integration of Oral Health with Primary Care in Health Centers; A Framework for Action. Oral presentation to the National Network for Oral Health Access Conference

Maxey, H. (2015). State Policy, Access, and Oral Health: The Case of Dental Hygiene and Federally Qualified Health Centers. Oral presentation to the 2015 American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Exposition, Chicago, IL.

Maxey, H. (2015). Integration of Oral Health in Health Centers. Oral presentation to the Indiana Primary Health Care Association Dental Health Forum

Maxey, H. (2015). Integration of Oral Health with Primary Care in Patient-Centered Medical Homes. Oral presentation to the National Association of Community Health Centers, In. Community Health Institute, Orlando, FL.

Maxey, H. (2015). Understanding the Impact of State Policy on Dental Service Delivery at Federally Qualified Health Centers. Oral presentation at the National Oral Health Conference, Kansas City, MO.

Maxey, H. (2014). Indiana’s Health Workforce Data and Policy Initiatives. Oral presentation given to the Indiana Professional Licensing Agency, Indianapolis, IN.

Maxey, H. (2014). Assuring Your PCMH Care Team Includes Oral Health. Oral presentation given at the Community Health Institute for the National Association of Community Health.

Maxey, H. (2014). Understanding the Effect of Health Workforce Policy on Dental Service Delivery by U.S. Health Center Program Grantees. Oral presentation to be given at the 2014 American Academy of Medical Colleges Health Workforce Conference, Washington, D.C.

Maxey, H., Sheff, Z. (2013). Physician Workforce Data as a Strategic Issue: Characteristics predictive of response to a state level survey. Oral presentation for Medical Care Section at the 2013 American Public Health Association Annual Conference, Boston, MA.

Maxey, H., Norwood, C., Walters, S. & Sheff, Z., (2013). Indiana’s Health Workforce: Description, Distribution, and Strategic Recommendation to Empowered Decision Making. Oral presentation at the Indiana Rural Health Association Annual Meeting held in Indianapolis, IN.

Maxey, H. (2012). Indiana Health Professions Shortage Update. Oral presentation given at the 2012 Indiana Area Health Education Centers Network Annual Meeting, Indianapolis, IN.

Maxey, H. (2007). Bridging the Language Barrier to Positively Impact Oral Health. Oral presentation at the 2007 Indiana Public Health Association Annual Session, Bloomington, IN.

Maxey, H. (2015) A Framework for Studying the Impact of State Policy on Access and Health: The Case of Dental Hygiene and Federally Qualified Health Centers. Oral presentation given at the 2015 AcademyHealth Annual Research Meeting Conference, Minneapolis, MN

Maxey, H. (2015). Oral Health Policy Research: Unlocking the Power of Data, Understanding Access, and Advancing Oral Health. Oral Presentation given to the American Dental Hygiene Association, Center for Life Long Learning Institute, Nashville, TN

Maxey, H. (2015). Scope of Practice Analysis. Oral presentation given to the American Association of Medical Colleges Health Workforce Research Conference

Maxey, H. (2015). Licensed Health Professions and Decision Making. Oral presentation given to the Indiana Commission on Improving the Status of Children

Norwood, C. W., & Wright, E. R. (2015). Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs) in pharmacy practice: A clinical resource to support pharmacists’ professional judgment and fight prescription drug abuse. Paper presented at the 143rd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition, Chicago, IL.

Norwood, C. W., Mullins, C., Biviji-Sharma, R., Church, A., Henderson, M., & Stone, C.

(2015). Policy Advocacy Actions at the Organization, State and National Levels: Using Service

Learning to Inform Policy at the State Level. Paper presented at the 143rd APHA Annual

Meeting and Exposition, Chicago, IL.

Norwood, C. W., Mullins, C., Biviji-Sharma, R., Church, A., Henderson, M., & Stone, C.

(2015). Policy Advocacy Actions at the Organization, State and National Levels: Using Service

Learning to Inform Policy at the State Level. Paper presented at the 143rd APHA Annual

Meeting and Exposition, Chicago, IL.

Maxey, H. (2014). Federally Qualified Health Centers, Dental Care Delivery, Access to Care, and Dental Hygiene: From Patient Care to Policy Research. Oral presentation given at the Great Lakes Medical & Dental Health Integration Summit

Norwood, C. W. (2014). Indiana State Policy and the Prescription Drug Abuse Epidemic. Paper

presented at the Manchester University Public Health Discussion Day, Manchester, IN.

Maxey, H. (2016). Expanding Mental Health Services in the Face of a Workforce Shortage. Webinar presentation to the Indiana Hospital Association

Maxey, H. (2016) Expanding Mental Health Services in the Face of a Workforce Shortage. Webinar presentation to the Indiana Council of Community Mental Health Centers

Maxey, H. (2016). Opportunities to Increase the Use of Workforce Policy Academy. Webinar presentation to the National Governor’s Association

Maxey, H. (2015). Integration of Oral Health with Primary Care in Patient Centered Medical Homes: A Framework for Action. Webinar presentation to the National Oral Health Innovation and Integration Network

Maxey, H. (2015). Indiana Health Workforce Data and Policy Initiatives. Webinar presentation to the Center for Health Service Research

Maxey, H. (2014). Strengthening America’s Rural Dental Workforce through Policy and Partnerships. Center for Interdisciplinary Health Workforce Studies. Webinar presentation at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN.

Norwood, C. W. (2016). Using Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs) to Improve Clinical Decision-Making and Support Pharmacists’ Professional Judgment. Poster presented at the 2016 Annual Research Meeting Academy Health, Boston, MA.

Norwood, C. W. (2016). Leveraging Existing Workforce Data in Policy Analysis: The Case of HIV in Scott County. Poster presented at the 2016 Annual Research Meeting Academy Health, Boston, MA.

Norwood, C., Sheff, Z., Zollinger, T., Maxey H., Walters SJ. (2014). The Impact of ARRA Funding on Health Professional Recruitment, Retention, and Program Capacity in Indiana. Poster presentation at 2014 Academy Health Annual Research Meeting, San Diego, CA.

Maxey, H. & Sheff, Z. (2013). Physician Workforce Data as a Strategic Issue: Characteristics predictive of response to a state level survey. Poster presented at the 2013 American Academy of Medical Colleges Physician Workforce Conference, Alexandria, VA.

Maxey, H. (2012). Data management and access to oral healthcare in rural Indiana. Poster presented at 2012 American Public Health Association Annual Session held in San Francisco, CA.

Maxey, H. (2011). Innovative examination of existing data: Impacting access to oral health care in Indiana. Poster presented at 2011 Indiana Rural Health Association Annual Conference held in Indianapolis, IN.

Maxey, H. (2010). Enhancing dental care access within the Amish community of LaGrange County. Poster presented at the 2010 Indiana Rural Health Association Annual Conference held in Indianapolis, IN.

Maxey, H. (2010) Communication and desensitization aides for patients with autism and other intellectual/developmental disabilities in the general dental practice. Poster presented at the 2010 Special Care Dentistry Association Annual Session held in Chicago, IL.

Maxey, H., Norwood, C. W., (2016). A Workforce Model for the Integration of Oral Health with Primary Care: Leveraging an Existing Workforce to Expand the Primary Care Team. Presentation to the 12th Annual AAMC Health Workforce Research Conference, Chicago, IL.

Maxey, H. (2016). Analyzing New Models for Diabetes Care. Presentation to the 2016 AAMC Health Workforce Research Summit. Chicago, IL.

Maxey, H. (2015). State Policy, Access, and Oral Health: The Case of Dental Hygiene and Federally Qualified Health Centers. Presentation to the 2015 American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Exposition. Chicago, IL.

Maxey, H. (2015). Understanding the Impact of State Policy on Dental Service Delivery at Federally Qualified Health Centers. Presentation to the the National Oral Health Conference, Kansas City, MO.

Maxey, H. (2015) Integration of Oral Health with Primary Care in Health Centers: A Framework for Action. Presentation to the National Network for Oral Health Access Conference

Maxey, H. (2014). Understanding the Effect of Health Workforce Policy on Dental Service Delivery by U.S. Health Center Program Grantees. Presentation to the 2014 American Academy of Medical Colleges Health Workforce Conference, Washington, D.C.

Maxey, H. & Sheff, Z. (2013). Physician Workforce Data as a Strategic Issue: Characteristics predictive of response to a state level survey. Presentation to the Medical Care Section at the 2013 American Public Health Association Annual Conference, Boston, MA.

Maxey, H., Norwood, C., Walters, S. & Sheff, Z., (2013). Indiana’s Health Workforce: Description, Distribution, and Strategic Recommendation to Empowered Decision Making. Presentation to The Indiana Rural Health Association Annual Meeting held in Indianapolis, IN.

Maxey, H. (2007). Bridging the language barrier to positively impact oral health. Presentation to the 2007 Indiana Public Health Association Annual Session held in Bloomington, IN.

Health Care Delivery Evaluation

As the health system in the United States continues to implement new health programs and health care delivery models, evaluation of the these initiatives helps to determine the impact they have on health care access and population health. Investigators in the Bowen Center for Health Workforce Research and Policy collaborate with governmental organizations, health profession training programs, provider organizations, and non-profit agencies at local, state and national levels to evaluate the implementation, effectiveness and impact of these programs on health care access and delivery. Through qualitative and quantitative analyses, Bowen Center provides critical information for reporting and program improvement.

Evaluation Projects

The center is currently working on the National Governor’s Association Health Care Policy project. This $1 million project is funded by the Indiana State Department of Health through 2019. The primary outcome of this project is provide information on the state of Indiana’s health care workforce to legislative, professional and academic stakeholders.

Bowen Center investigators are also working on an “Indiana Primary Care Needs Assessment,” an ongoing geographic evaluation of Indiana’s health workforce to identify gaps in access to inform Indiana State Office of Primary Care activities. This $250,000 project, funded by the Indiana State Department of Health, is active from April 2014 to March 2019.

The center completed the “Evaluation of Network Development Intervention to Strengthen Indiana’s Rural Health System through Primary Care-based Chronic Disease Management” Project. This study was implemented by the Indiana State Rural Health Network (InSRHN) as part of a three-year Rural Health Development Grant award that was active from May 2014 through April 2017.

The center completed an “Indiana National Health Service Corps Evaluation,” an evaluation of recruitment and retention strategies for the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA). This study was funded through the National Health Service Corps providers in Indiana.