Xu Lab Research

A complete list of representative publications for Xiao-Ming Xu, PhD, is available on his online bibliography.

Research Interests

  • Glucocorticoid receptor, inflammation, and cell death

    In collaboration with Dr. Chung Hsu at Washington University, St. Louis, we were among the first to identify apoptotic cell death following SCI. We systemically investigated inflammation cascades including the expression of TNFα, TNF receptors, and transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1. We investigated the expression and functional role of the glucocorticoids receptor (GR) in mediating the structural and functional outcomes after SCI. Both pharmacological and genetic approaches were used in these studies.

    Representative publications:

    1. Liu XZ, Xu XM, Hu R, Cheng D, Zhang SX, McDonald JW, Dong HX, Wu YJ, Fan GS, Jacquin MF, Hsu CY, Choi DW (1997) Neuronal and glial apoptosis after traumatic spinal cord injury. J Neurosci 17:5395-5406.
    2. Yan P, Xu J, Li Q, Chen SW, Kim G-M, Hsu CY, Xu XM* (1999) Gluococorticoid receptor expression in the spinal cord after traumatic injury in adult rats. J Neurosci 19: 9355-9363.
    3. Kim GM, Xu J, Xu J, Song S-K, Yan P, Ku G, Xu XM, Hsu CY (2001) Tumor necrosis factor receptor deletion reduces nuclear factor-kB activation, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 expression, and functional recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury. J Neurosci 21:6617-6625.
    4. Xu J, G-M Kim, Ahmed SH, Xu J, Yan P, Xu XM, Hsu CY (2001) Glucocorticoid receptor-mediated suppression of AP-1 activation and matrix metalloproteinase expression after spinal cord injury. J Neurosci 21:92-97.
  • Phospholipase A2 as a novel target for neuroprotection

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is a diverse family of lipolytic enzymes. We found that the total PLA2 activity and expression, as well as the expression of cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) and secretory PLA2-IIA (sPLA2-IIA), significantly increased following SCI. Exogenous administration of PLA2 induced inflammatory, oxidation, motor dysfunction, and demyelination. Inhibition of PLA2 with annexin A1 (ANX-A1), a PLA2 inhibitor, in a rat SCI model showed inhibition of inflammation and neuroprotection. Currently, we are investigating whether PLA2 serves as a common pathway that mediates multiple injury mechanisms and whether blocking PLA2 can be an attractive strategy to improve tissue repair and functional recovery.

    Representative publications:

    1. Liu N-K, Zhang YP, Titsworth WL, Jiang X, Han S, Lu PH, Shields CB and Xu X-M* (2006) A Novel Role of Phospholipase A2 in Mediating Spinal Cord Secondary Injury. Annal Neurol 59:606-619.
    2. Titsworth WL, Cheng X, Ke Y, Deng L, Burckardt KA, Pendleton C, Liu N-K, Shao H, Cao Q-L, Xu X-M* (2009) Differential expression of sPLA2 following spinal cord injury and a functional role for sPLA2-IIA in mediating oligodendrocyte death. Glia 1521-1537. [PMID: 19306380]
    3. Liu NK, Byers JS, Lam T, Lu Q, Sengelaub DR, Xu X-M* (2014) Inhibition of cPLA2 has neuroprotective effects on motoneuron and muscle atrophy following spinal cord injury J Neurotrauma Nov 11. [Epub ahead of print].
    4. Liu N-K, Deng L-X, Zhang YP, Lu Q-B, Wang X-F, Hu J-G, Oakes E, Shields CB, Xu, X-M* (2014) cPLA2 protein as a novel therapeutic target for spinal cord injury Ann Neurol 75(5):644-58.
  • Schwann cell transplantation

    Working with Drs. Richard and Mary Bartlett Bunge (The Miami Project to Cure Paralysis, University of Miami), we were among the first to transplant Schwann cells (SCs) into the injured spinal cord to promote axonal regeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI). This earlier work, along with others, provided the scientific rationale for the clinical trial of autologous SC transplantation in human SCI patients being conducted at the Miami Project to Cure Paralysis, University of Miami. Currently, my laboratory has been testing combinatorial strategies involving SC transplantation, delivery of trophic factors, and removal of glial scar to enhance the survival, regeneration, and recovery of function in animal models of SCI and to translate these strategies to pre-clinical settings.

    Representative publications:

    1. Xu XM, Guénard V, Kleitman N, and Bunge MB (1995a) Axonal regeneration into Schwann cell-seeded guidance channels grafted into transected adult rat spinal cord. J Comp Neurol 351:145-160.
    2. Xu XM, Guénard V, Kleitman N, Bunge MB (1995b) A combination of BDNF and NT-3 promotes supraspinal axonal regeneration into Schwann cell grafts in adult rat thoracic spinal cord. Exp Neurol134:261-272.
    3. Zhang L, Ma Z, Smith GM, Wen X, Pressman Y, Wood PM, Xu X-M* (2009) GDNF-enhanced axonal regeneration and myelination following spinal cord injury is mediated by primary effects on neurons. Glia 57:1178-1191.
    4. Deng L, Deng P, Ruan Y, XuZC, Liu N, Wen X, Smith GM, Xu X-M* (2013) A novel growth-promoting pathway formed by GDNF-overexpressing Schwann cells promotes propriospinal axonal regeneration, synapse formation, and partial recovery of function after spinal cord injury. J Neurosci 33:5655-5667.
  • Regeneration and plasticity

    A major effort in my laboratory is to promote axonal regeneration of descending pathways such as the corticospinal tract (CST), rubrospinal tract (RST), and descending propriospinal tract (dPST) after various treatments. Two major strategies were tested: 1) inhibition of conventional protein kinases C (PKC) at the lesion site and motor cortex (In collaboration with Dr. Zhigang He at Harvard Medical School), and 2) inhibition of Wnt signaling (In collaboration with Dr. Yimin Zou at UCSD). Both strategies yielded promising results. We are now studying whether regeneration/plasticity of CST axons could form a new functional relay within the injured spinal cord to promote recovery of motor function.

    Representative publications:

    1. Sivasankaran, R., Pei, J., Wang, K.C., Zhang, Y.P., Shields, C.B., Xu, X.-M.* and He, Z.* (2004) Protein kinase C mediates inhibitory effects of myelin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans on axonal regeneration. Nat Neurosci 7:261-268.
    2. Liu Y, Wang X, Sherman R, Lu C-C, Steward O*, Xu X-M*, Zou Y* (2008) Repulsive Wnt signaling inhibits axon regeneration following central nervous system injury. J Neurosci 28:8376-8382.
    3. Wang X, Hu J, She Y, Smith GM, Xu X-M* (2013) Cortical PKC inhibition promotes axonal regeneration of the corticospinal tract and forelimb recovery after cervical dorsal spinal hemisection in adult rats Cerebral Cortex 24:3069-3079, 2014 [PMID: 23810979]
    4. Al-Ali H, Ding Y, Slepak T, Wu W, Sun Y, Martinez Y, Xu X-M, Lemmon V*, Bixby J* (2017) The mTOR substrate S6 Kinase 1 (S6K1) is a negative regulator of axon regeneration and a potential drug target for Central Nervous System. J. Neurosci. 37:7079-7095. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0931-17.2017
  • Traumatic Brain Injury

    As a Scientific Director of the Indiana Spinal Cord and Brain Injury Research Group (ISCBIRG), I also contribute to the TBI Consortium Group at IUSM by establishing several well-accepted models of TBI and by developing new TBI models for our own need. Using these models, we are currently studying 1) the role of cPLA2 in the TBI model, and 2) whether blocking PSD-95 and nNOS interaction results in neuroprotection (with Dr. Anantha Shekhar at IU School of Medicine).

    Representative publications:

    1. Liu NK, Zhang Y-P, O’Connor J, Gianaris A, Oakes E, Lu Q-B, Verhovshek T, Walker C, Shields CB, Xu X-M* (2013) A bilateral head injury that shows graded brain damage and behavior deficits in adult mice Brain Research 1499:121-128 [PMID:23276498]
    2. Liu N-K, Zhang Y-P, Zou J, Verhovshek T, Chen C, Lu Q-B, Walker CL, Shields BS, Xu X-M* (2014) A semicircular controlled cortical impact produces long-term motor and cognitive dysfunction that correlates well with damage to both the sensorimotor cortex and hippocampus. Brain Res 1576:18-26, 2014.
    3. Wang H, Zhang YP, Cain J, Tuchek CA, Shields LBE, Shi R, Li J, Shields CB, Xu X-M* (2016) A Compact blast brain injury device produces graded injury severities, neuronal degeneration and functional deficits. J Neuropath Exp Neurol 271:368-378, 2016.
    4. Qu W, Liu N-K, Wu X, Wang Y, Xia Y, Sun Y, Lai Y, Li R, Shekhar A, and Xu X-M* (2020) Disrupting nNOS-PSD95 interaction improves neurological recovery following traumatic brain injury Cerebral Cortex. 30 (7) 3859-3871,2020 https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa002

Clinical Interests

Dr. Xu collaborates with neurosurgeons in the Department of Neurological Surgery at Indiana University School of Medicine and Goodman Campbell Brain and Spine who assist with the design of studies in animal models that have the potential to be translated into clinical trials for spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury. 

Research Publications

  • Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles
    1. Xu XM, Martin GF (1989) Developmental plasticity of the rubrospinal tract in the North American opossum. J Comp Neurol 279:368-381.
    2. †Xu XM, Martin GF (1991) Evidence for new growth and regeneration of cut axons in developmental plasticity of the rubrospinal tract in the North American opossum. J Comp Neurol 313:103-112.
    3. †Xu XM, Guénard V, Kleitman N, and Bunge MB (1995a) Axonal regeneration into Schwann cell-seeded guidance channels grafted into transected adult rat spinal cord. J Comp Neurol 351:145-160. (Xu top 10 citation: 621 times, 2021)
    4. †Xu XM, Guénard V, Kleitman N, Bunge MB (1995b) A combination of BDNF and NT-3 promotes supraspinal axonal regeneration into Schwann cell grafts in adult rat thoracic spinal cord. Exp Neurol 134:261-272. (Xu top 10 citation: 574 times, 2021)
    5. †Xu XM, Chen A, Guénard V, Kleitman N, Bunge MB (1997) Bridging Schwann cell transplants promote axonal regeneration from both the rostral and caudal stumps of transected adult rat spinal cord. J Neurocytol 26:1-16. (Ranked #58 of top 100 most frequently cited articles on traumatic spinal cord injury that were published between 1986 and 2003; Furlan and Fehlings. J Neurotrauma 23:156-169, 2006). (Xu top 10 citation: 574 times, 2021)
    6. Liu XZ, Xu XM, Hu R, Cheng D, Zhang SX, McDonald JW, Dong HX, Wu YJ, Fan GS, Jacquin MF, Hsu CY, Choi DW (1997) Neuronal and glial apoptosis after traumatic spinal cord injury. J Neurosci 17:5395-5406.(Ranked #18 of top 100 most frequently cited articles on traumatic spinal cord injury that were published between 1986 and 2003; Furlan and Fehlings. J Neurotrauma 23:156-169, 2006). (Xu top 10 citation: 1,096 times, 2021)
    7. Xu J, Fan GS, Chen SW, Wu YJ, Liu XZ, Xu XM, Hsu CY (1998) Methylprednisolone reduced TNF-a expression and NF-kB activation caused by spinal cord injury in rat. Mol Brain Res 59:135-142. . (Xu top 10 citation: 259 times, 2021)
    8. Yan P, Xu J, Li Q, Chen SW, Kim G-M, Hsu CY, Xu XM* (1999) Gluococorticoid receptor expression in the spinal cord after traumatic injury in adult rats. J Neurosci 19: 9355-9363.
    9. Xu XM*, Zhang S-X, Li H, Aebischer P, Bunge MB (1999) Regrowth of axons into the distal spinal cord through a Schwann cell-seeded mini-channel implanted into hemisected adult rat spinal cord. Eur J Neurosci 11:1723-1740. . (Xu top 10 citation: 326 times, 2021)
    10. Gianino S, Stein SA, Li H, Lu X, Biesiada E, Ulas J, Xu XM* (1999) Postnatal growth of corticospinal axons in the spinal cord of developing mice. Dev Brain Res 112:189-204.
    11. Kim E-S, Li H, McCulloch PF, Morrison LA, Yoon K-W, Xu XM* (2000) Spatial and temporal patterns of transneuronal labeling in CNS neurons after injection of pseudorabies virus into the sciatic nerve of adult rats. Brain Res 857:41-55.
    12. Warden P, Bamber NI, Li H, Esposito A, Ahmad KA, Hsu CY, Xu XM* (2001) Delayed glial cell death following Wallerian degeneration in white matter tracts after spinal cord dorsal column cordotomy in adult rats. Exp. Neurol. 168:213-224.
    13. Bamber NI, Li H, Lu X, Oudega M, Aebischer P, and Xu XM* (2001) Neurotrophins BDNF and NT-3 promote axonal re-entry into the distal host spinal cord through Schwann cell-seeded mini-channels. Eur J Neurosci 13:257-268. (Xu top 10 citation: 252 times, 2021)
    14. Xu J, G-M Kim, Ahmed SH, Xu J, Yan P, Xu XM, Hsu CY (2001) Glucocorticoid receptor-mediated suppression of AP-1 activation and matrix metalloproteinase expression after spinal cord injury. J Neurosci 21:92-97.
    15. Iannotti C, Li H, Yan P, Lu X, Wirthlin L, Xu X-M* (2003) Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-enriched bridging transplants promote propriospinal axonal regeneration and enhance myelination after spinal cord injury. Exp Neurol. 183:379-393.
    16. Chau, C.H., Shum, D.K.Y., Li, H., Pei, J., Lui, Y.Y., Wirthlin, L., Chan, Y.S. and Xu, X.M. * (2004) Chondroitinase treatment enhances axonal regrowth through Schwann cell-seeded guidance channels after spinal cord injury. FASEB J. 18: 194-196. . (Xu top 10 citation: 236 times, 2021)
    17. Sivasankaran, R., Pei, J., Wang, K.C., Zhang, Y.P., Shields, C.B., Xu, X.-M.* and He, Z.* (2004) Protein kinase C mediates inhibitory effects of myelin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans on axonal regeneration. Nat. Neurosci. 7:261-268. (Xu top 10 citation: 363 times, 2021)
    18. Zhang KH, Xiao H-S, Lu P-H, Shi J, Li G-D, Wang Y-T, Zhang X, Xu X-M* (2004) Differential gene expression after complete spinal cord transection in adult rats: An analysis focused on a sub-chronic post-injury stage. Neuroscience 128:375-388, 2004.
    19. Hsu J-Y, Stein SA, and Xu X-M* (2005) Temporal and spatial distributions of growth-associated molecules and astroglial cells in the rat corticospinal tract during development. J Neurosci Res 80:330-340.
    20. Cao Q, Xu X-M, DeVries WH, Enzmann GU, Ping PP, Tsoulfas P, Wood PM, Bunge MB, and Whittemore SR (2005) Functional recovery in traumatic spinal cord injury after transplantation of multineurotrophin-expressing glial-restricted precursor cells. J Neurosci 25:6947-6957. [PMID: 2813488] . (Xu top 10 citation: 316 times, 2021)
    21. Liu NK, Zhang YP, Titsworth WL, Jiang X, Han S, Lu PH, Shields CB and Xu X-M* (2006) A Novel Role of Phospholipase A2 in Mediating Spinal Cord Secondary Injury. Annal Neurol 59:606-619. (with Editorial Comment by Andrea D. Olivas and Linda J. Noble-Haeusslein entitled “Phospholipase A2 and spinal cord injury: A novel target for therapeutic intervention” on the same issue pp577-579)
    22. Hsu J-YC, Stein SA, and Xu X-M* (2006) Development of the corticospinal tract in the mouse spinal cord: A quantitative ultrastructural analysis. Brain Res 1084:16-27.
    23. Jiang X-Y, Fu S-L, Nie B-M, Li Y, Lin L, Yin L, Wang YX, Lu P-H, Xu X-M* (2006) Methods for isolating highly-enriched embryonic spinal cord neurons: A comparison between enzymatic and mechanical dissociations. J Neurosci Meth 158:13-18.
    24. Oudega M, Xu X-M* (2006) Schwann cell transplantation for repair of the adult spinal cord. J Neurotrauma 23:453-467. (Xu top 10 citation: 290 times, 2021)
    25. Titsworth WL, Onifer SM, Liu NK, Xu X-M* (2007) Focal phospholipases A2 group III injections induce cervical white matter injury and functional deficits with delayed recovery concomitant with Schwann cell remyelination. Exp Neurol 207:150-162.
    26. Liu N-K, Zhang YP, Han S, Pei J, Xu LY, Lu P-H, Shields CB, Xu X-M* (2007) Annexin A1 reduces inflammatory reaction and tissue damage through inhibition of phospholipase A2 activation in adult rats following spinal cord injury. J Neuropath Exp Neurol 66:932-943.
    27. Liu Y, Wang X, Sherman R, Lu C-C, Steward O*, Xu X-M*, Zou Y* (2008) Repulsive Wnt signaling inhibits axon regeneration following central nervous system injury. J Neurosci 28:8376-8382
    28. Zhang L, Ma Z, Smith GM, Wen X, Pressman Y, Wood PM, Xu X-M* (2009) GDNF-enhanced axonal regeneration and myelination following spinal cord injury is mediated by primary effects on neurons. Glia 57:1178-1191 (DOI: 10.1002/glia.20840)
    29. Titsworth WL, Cheng X, Ke Y, Deng L, Burckardt KA, Pendleton C, Liu N-K, Shao H, Cao Q-L, Xu X-M* (2009) Differential expression of sPLA2 following spinal cord injury and a functional role for sPLA2-IIA in mediating oligodendrocyte death. Glia 1521-1537. [PMID: 19306380]
    30. Shi F, Zhu H, Yang S, Liu Y, Feng Y, Shi J, Xu D, Wu W, You S, Ma Z, Zou J, Lu P, Xu X-M* (2009) Glial response and myelin clearance in areas of Wallerian degeneration after spinal cord hemisection in the monkey Macaca Fascilularis. J Neurotrauma 26:2083-2096. [PMID: 19456214]
    31. Xu X-M*, Onifer SM* (2009) Transplantation-mediated strategies to promote axonal regeneration following spinal cord injury [Review]. Resp. Physiol. Neurobiol. 169:171-182 [NIHMS-143796; PMID-19665611; PMCID-PMC2800078]
    32. Cao Q, He Q, Wang Y, Cheng X, Howard RM, Zhang Y, DeVries WH, Shields CB, Magnuson DSK, Xu X-M, Kim DH, Whittemore SR (2010) Transplantation of ciliary neurotrophic factor-expressing adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells promotes remyelination and functional recovery after spinal cord injury. J Neurosci. 30:2989-3001. [PMID: 20181596]
    33. Wang X, Smith GM, Xu X-M* (2011) Preferential and bidirectional labeling of the rubrospinal tract with adenovirus-GFP for monitoring normal and injured axons. J Neurotrauma 28:635-647. [PMID: 21299337]
    34. Wu WJ, Wu W, Zou J, Shi F, Yang S, Liu Y, Lu P, Ma Z, Zhu H, Xu X-M* (2013) Axonal and glial responses to a mid-thoracic spinal cord hemisection in the Macaca fascicularis monkey. J Neurotrauma 30:826-839 [PMID:23421822]
    35. Deng L, Deng P, Ruan Y, Xu ZC, Liu N, Wen X, Smith GM, Xu X-M* (2013) A novel growth-promoting pathway formed by GDNF-overexpressing Schwann cells promotes propriospinal axonal regeneration, synapse formation, and partial recovery of function after spinal cord injury. J Neurosci 33:5655-5667 [PMID: 23536080]
    36. Wang X, Hu J, She Y, Smith GM, Xu X-M* (2013) Cortical PKC inhibition promotes axonal regeneration of the corticospinal tract and forelimb recovery after cervical dorsal spinal hemisection in adult rats Cerebral Cortex. Advance Access Publication June 28, 2013; Printed Publication 24:3069-3079, 2014 [PMID: 23810979]
    37. Hu J, Wang X, Deng L, Liu N, Gao X, Chen JH, Zhou F, Xu X-M* (2013) Co-transplantation of glial restricted precursor cells and Schwann cells promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury Cell Transplant 22:2219-2236. DOI: 10.3727/096368912X661373 (with Cover Image)
    38. Wu W, Lee S-Y, Xu X, Tyler J, Wang H, Ouyang Z, Park K, Xu X-M*, Cheng J-X* (2013) Neuroprotective ferulic acid (FA) – glycol chitosan (GC) nanoparticles for functional restoration of traumatically injured spinal cord. Biomaterials 35:2355-2364
    39. Liu N-K, Deng L-X, Zhang YP, Lu Q-B, Wang X-F, Hu J-G, Oakes E, Shields CB, Xu, X-M* (2014) cPLA2 protein as a novel therapeutic target for spinal cord injury Ann Neurol 75(5):644-58.
    40. Wang, XF, Xu X-M* (2014) Long-term survival, axonal growth-promotion, and myelination of Schwann cells grafted into contused spinal cord in adult rats. Exp Neurol. 261:308-319. [doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2014.05.022]
    41. Wang H, Liu N-K, Zhang YP, Deng LX, Lu QB, Shields CB, Walker MJ, Li J, Xu X-M* (2015) Treadmill training induced lumbar motoneuron dendritic plasticity and behavior recovery in adult rats after a thoracic contusive spinal cord injury. Exp. Neurol. 271:368-378.
    42. Wang H, Zhang YP, Cain J, Tuchek CA, Shields LBE, Shi R, Li J, Shields CB, Xu X-M* (2016) A Compact blast brain injury device produces graded injury severities, neuronal degeneration and functional deficits. J Neuropath. Exp. Neurol. 75(2) 183-196.
    43. Ma Z, Zhang YP, Liu W, Yan G, Li Y, Shields LB, Walker M, Chen K, Huang W, Kong M, Lu Y, Brommer B, Chen X*, Xu X-M*, Shields CB* (2016) A controlled spinal cord contusion for the rhesus macaque monkey Exp Neurol 279 (261-273)
    44. Lin X, Zhao T, Walker M, Ding A, Lin S, Cao Y, Zheng J, Liu X, Geng M, Xu X-M*, Liu S* (2016) Transplantation of pro-oligodendroblasts, preconditioned by LPS-stimulated microglia, promotes recovery after acute contusive spinal cord injury Cell Transpl. 25:2111-2128.
    45. Wu XB, Walker CL, Lu Q, Wu W, Eddelman DB, Parish JM, and Xu X-M* (2016) RhoA/Rho kinase mediates neuronal death through regulating cPLA2 activation. Mol. Neurobiol. DOI: 10.1007/s12035-016-0187-6
    46. Al-Ali H, Ding Y, Slepak T, Wu W, Sun Y, Martinez Y, Xu X-M*, Lemmon V*, Bixby J* (2017) The mTOR substrate S6 Kinase 1 (S6K1) is a negative regulator of axon regeneration and a potential drug target for Central Nervous System. J. Neurosci. 37:7079-7095
    47. Wang Y, Wu W, Wu X, Sun Y, Zhang YP, Deng L-X, Walker MJ, Qu W, Chen C, Liu NL, Han Q, Dai H, Lisa B.E. Shields LBE, Shields CB, Sengelaub DR, Jones KJ, Smith GM, and Xu X-M* (2018) Remodeling of lumbar motor circuitry remote to a thoracic spinal cord injury promotes locomotor recovery. eLife Sept. 12, 2018; doi: 10.7554/eLife.39016. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30207538 (IF7.080)
    48. Han Q, Ordaz JD, Liu N, Richardson Z, Wu W, Xia Y, Qu W, Wang Y, Dai H, Zhang YP, Shields CB, Smith GM, Xu X-M* (2019) Descending motor circuitry required for NT-3 mediated locomotor recovery after spinal cord injury in mice. Nat. Comm. 10 (1) 1-16,https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-13854-3 (IF12.121)
    49. Qu W, Liu N-K, Wu X, Wang Y, Xia Y, Sun Y, Lai Y, Li R, Shekhar A, and Xu X-M* (2020) Disrupting nNOS-PSD95 interaction improves neurological recovery following traumatic brain injury Cerebral Cortex. 30 (7) 3859-3871,2020 https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa002 (IF5.043)
    50. Han Q, Xie Y., Ordaz JD, Huh AJ, Huang N, Wu W, Liu N, Chamberlain KA, Sheng Z-H, Xu X-M* (2020) Recovering energy deficits promotes CNS axonal regeneration and functional restoration after spinal cord injury Cell Metabolism 31 (3) 623-641, March 3, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2020.02.002 (IF20.565)
    51. Tai W, Xu X-M, Zhang C-L (2020) Regeneration through in vivo cell fate reprogramming for neural repair. Front. Cell. Neurosci. 14:107.  24 April 2020 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2020.00107 (IF3.921)
    52. Liu Y, Xie J-X, NiuF, Xu Z, Tan P, Shen C, Gao H, Liu S, Ma Z, So K-F, Wu W, Chen C, Gao S, Xu X-M*, Zhu H* (2020) Surgical intervention combined with weight-bearing walking training improves neurological recoveries in 320 clinically complete human spinal cord injury: a prospective self-controlled study. Neural Reg. Res. Date of web publication: November 16, 2020; Date of print publication 216 (5) 820-829, 2021; https://doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.297080. (IF3.171)
    53. Tai W+, Wu W+; Wang L-L*, Ni H, Chen C, Yang J, Zou Y, Xu X-M*; Zhang C-L* (2021) Latent neurogenic potential of NG2 glia enables adult neurogenesis and functional recovery following spinal cord injury Cell Stem Cell (CELL-STEM-CELL-D-20-00557R1, accepted) (*co-corresponding authors) (IF: 20.860)