YOU ARE EXPLORING
Approximately 9,000 new cases of testicular cancer are diagnosed in the United States each year. In 70 percent of these cases, the disease is confined to the testicle (pT1-4N0M0) and, therefore, defined as a clinical stage I disease with normal serum tumor markers (i.e. beta human chorionic gonadotropin and alpha-fetoprotein). Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are classified as either seminoma or nonseminoma. Pure seminoma represents up to 40 percent of stage I cases and nonseminomatous tumors generally contain a mixture of cell types, including embryonal cell carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, teratoma and choriocarcinoma.
Management options for stage I tumors depend on the histology of the primary testicular tumor being either pure seminoma or mixed nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT). About 99 percent of men diagnosed with a stage I tumor are cured of the disease. In the setting of larger volume metastatic disease, chemotherapy is required and possibly a postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND) if there is residual disease following chemotherapy. Indiana University School of Medicine Department of Urology faculty specialize in researching and providing treatments for all types of testicular cancer.