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Medical History:

3000 BC - AD 400: The ancient Egyptians up to the time of the Roman Empire believed that gods and spirits caused and cured diseases. As a result, priests and temples became the first doctors and hospitals. The Greeks believed that the god Apollo invented healing and that his knowledge was passed on to Asclepius, the god of healing, who was a doctor during the same period as Hippocrates. The worship of Asclepius began around 500 BC. The followers of Asclepius believed in supernatural causes and cures for diseases. Hippocrates, however, stressed the importance of observation, diagnosis and treatment, and developed the theory of the body having four humours; black bile, yellow bile, phlegm and blood.

1543: Andreas Vesalius wrote de Humani Corporis Fabrica (the Fabric of the Human Body), describing the anatomy of the human body for the first time.

1590: Modern microscope invented by Dutch spectacle makers Zaccharias and Hans Janssen.

1616: William Harvey announced his discovery that blood circulated around the body, challenging Galen's view, popular for 1400 years, that blood was continually being made and used up.

1847: American Medical Association is founded.

1848: Indiana Hospital for the Insane in Indianapolis opens as the first state-supported mental facility in Indiana.

1849: Indiana State Medical Society (later Indiana State Medical Association) forms "to educate physicians about science and clinical developments in medicine." Livingston Dunlap becomes its first president.

1860: Indiana State Medical Society adopts a resolution to investigate the use of a microscope to study diseased cells.

1861-1865: Nearly 500 of Indiana's physicians care for wounded during the Civil War.

1867: John Stough Bobbs, an Indianapolis physician, performs the first surgery to remove gallstones.

1876: Mary Frame Thomas, a physician in Richmond, Indiana, becomes the first female member of the Indiana State Medical Society.

1879: Louis Pasteur demonstrates value of vaccine to protect sheep against anthrax.

1880: Moses Baker, a pioneer physician-surgeon in Stockwell, Indiana, performs Indiana's first successful Cesarean section.

1880: John Shaw Billings publishes the first U.S. Surgeon General's medical index catalog, which provides the foundation for the National Library of Medicine.

1881: Indiana State Board of Health established. Also, at the annual Indiana State Medical Society meeting, a paper identifies tobacco as a serious health threat and theorizes a connection to cancer.

1882: Robert Koch isolates microorganism responsible for tuberculosis (TB), then a leading cause of death.

1883: Indiana's first nursing school, the Flower Mission School (later Wishard Memorial Hospital School of Nursing) opens.

1884: Sarah Stockton becomes the first female assistant physician at the Indiana State Hospital for the Insane.

1883: Robert Koch isolates the microorganism responsible for cholera, a major epidemic disease in the nineteenth century.

1885: Louis Pasteur develops first rabies vaccine.

1893: The Johns Hopkins University Medical School, the first modern American medical school, opens in Baltimore.

1895: Wilhelm Röntgen, a German scientist, discovers X-rays.

1896: George Edenharter, superintendent of Central State Hospital for the Insane, dedicates a building for the Pathological Department, the largest facility of its type in the state and only the second of its type in the U.S. The building now houses the Indiana Medical History Museum.

1897: Aspirin is invented in Germany.

1897: William Niles Wishard, an Indianapolis physician, writes the Indiana Medical Practices Act, which creates the State Board of Medical Registration and Examination.

1898: The Indiana Board of Pharmacy is created.

Political Struggle
1903-1908

The first years of the School of Medicine were so uncertain that IU's authority to operate such a school was almost lost to Purdue. The political intrigue and behind-the-scenes maneuvering that occurred during this time make this one of the most dramatic periods in the School's history.

Medical History:

March 1903: William Lowe Bryan proposes the establishment of a Medical Department to the University trustees. Proposal is approved. This event marks the beginning of the Indiana University School of Medicine.

May 1903: The Indiana University Bulletin announces the new department.

July 1903: Burton D. Myers, M.D., previously at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, is hired to head the Department of Anatomy in Bloomington.

1903: The State Anatomical Board is created. It is the forerunner of the Anatomical Education Program at IU School of Medicine, which accepts donated cadavers for use in teaching.

September 1903: Courses in anatomy and physiology begin in Lindley and Owen Halls in Bloomington.

1904: The first African American is admitted to IU School of Medicine. His name was Clarence Lucas Sr., and he graduated in 1908.

1904: English physicians William Maddock Bayliss and Ernest H. Starling propose that hormones act as chemical messengers through which organs regulate bodily functions.

May 1904: The University Bulletin outlines the 2-year medical course requirements and 2-year collegiate premedical requirements.

May 1904: IU School of Medicine is admitted to membership in the American Association of American Medical Colleges.

May 1904: IU School of Medicine is recognized by the Indiana State Board of Medical Registration and Examination.

September 1905: Medical College of Indiana and Central College of Physicians and Surgeons merge to become the Purdue University Medical Department.

1906: Indiana's Senator Albert J. Beveridge and physician Harvey Washington Wiley help secure passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act, regulating the production of drugs and food.

January 1906: To compete with Purdue, a group of individuals in Bloomington raises funds to acquire title to the building of the Central College of Physicians and Surgeons in Indianapolis. Renamed the State College of Physicians and Surgeons, this facility enabled the commencement of the last two years of medical education in Indianapolis.

1907: Clemens Von Pirquet introduces skin test for tuberculosis in Vienna.

1907: At Mount Sinai Hospital in New York, Dr. Reuben Ottenberg performs the first blood transfusion using cross matching.

May 18 1907: IU confers first medical degrees on 25 students.

April 7, 1908: After 2 years of struggle, an agreement is reached regarding the consolidation of the Indiana Medical College (Purdue Medical Department) with the State College of Physicians and the Bloomington Medical Department of Indiana University. The agreement called for all four years of the medical curriculum to be carried out in Indianapolis, while the first two years would continue to be taught also in Bloomington. This event was so important that April 7, 1908 has been characterized as "the second founding date" for Indiana University.

May 1908: Allison Maxwell is named dean of the newly consolidated School of Medicine.

May 20 1908: Graduates of the schools that had just become part of IU receive diplomas in Bloomington.

February 26 1909: Indiana General Assembly passes the Enabling Act that officially authorized the IU School of Medicine to possess a medical school in Marion County. Up to this time, Indiana law prohibited IU to operate any department outside of Monroe County. Therefore, the medical unit in Indianapolis had to be operated without state appropriations. Bryan told the IU Board of Trustees that passage of the Enabling Act opened a "new chapter" in the School of Medicine's history.

November 1909: Abraham Flexner visits the IU School of Medicine. Flexner concluded that "the situation in the state [was], thanks to the intelligent attitude of the university, distinctly hopeful, though it will take time to work it fully." "In order to make the school attractive to highly qualified students, it will be necessary (1) to employ full-time men in the work of the first two years, (2) to strengthen the laboratory equipment, (3) greatly improve the organization and conduct of the clinical courses," Flexner said of the IU School of Medicine in his famous report.

1909: Willis D. Gatch, future dean of the IU School of Medicine, invents the Gatch adjustable hospital bed; with the aid of a crank the patient's head and feet could be raised or lowered.


Great Expectations
1909-1913

In 1908, Purdue's president Winthrop Ellsworth Stone, surrendered the right to operate a medical school to IU. However, the future success of the IU School of Medicine was far from assured. The School's facilities in downtown Indianapolis and in Bloomington were inadequate and outmoded. It was saddled with a "preposterously large" faculty made up of men who had been affiliated with the old Indianapolis proprietary schools. Moreover, IU president, William Lowe Bryan, and the first deans of the school, Allison Maxwell and Charles P. Emerson, had to contend with old rivalries between the different factions that existed among faculty members and could not count on their loyalty to Indiana University.

According to the beliefs that dominated at the time, the School of Medicine also needed its own teaching hospital. Early in 1911, a gift from Indianapolis physician, Robert W. Long, made this possible. However, Indianapolis residents objected to the location in Military Park that the state legislature chose for it. As a result, only three years after the resolution of the prior controversy with Purdue, Indiana University again found itself engaged in conflict over the School of Medicine. After considering a number of alternatives, in 1912, the Board of Trustees finally settled on a site close to Indianapolis City Hospital on West Michigan Street. The Robert W. Long Hospital would be the first building on what would become the Indiana University Medical Center.

Medical History:

1910: The Flexner Report revolutionizes medical education in the U.S. and Canada. The Indiana University School of Medicine received a positive report, unlike many other schools studied.

January 1911: Gov. Thomas R. Marshall transmits Dr. Robert W. Long's offer to give $200,000 for the erection of a hospital building for the use and benefit of IU School of Medicine.

1911: Casimir Funk proposes term "vitamine" for substances that prevent deficiency diseases such as scurvy.

June 1911: Decreased freshman enrollment at Indianapolis causes the School of Medicine to abandon the sophomore year at Bloomington and the freshman year at Indianapolis.

July 1911: Charles P. Emerson (MD, Johns Hopkins University 1899), named dean to succeed Allison Maxwell. At Johns Hopkins, Emerson was a student of William Osler.

January 1912: Willis D. Gatch (BS, 1901; MD, Johns Hopkins, 1907) begins his career at IU. At Johns Hopkins, Gatch studied with the eminent surgeon William S. Halstead. He is the inventor of the Gatch adjustable hospital bed (1909).

February 1912: Property for Long Hospital acquired, establishing the area on West Michigan Street as the future site of the IU Medical Center.

1912: Elmer V. McCollum and associates isolate Vitamin A at the University of Wisconsin.

June 15, 1914: Long Hospital dedicated. First patient admitted, June 19, 1914. Also, the Training School for Nurses was established at Indiana University, and seven students are admitted.

1914: One of IUSM's first faculty members, George Bond was perhaps the first individual to operate an electrocardiograph in the U.S. The Indiana native was employed at Johns Hopkins when he was hired by Dean Charles Emerson in 1914.

1915: John F. Barnhill, M.D., starts annual course in Indianapolis in head and neck anatomy, marking the beginning of Continuing Medical Education at the IU School of Medicine.

September 1915: Emerson hires the first full-time head of the Department of Pharmacology, Dr. B. B. (Bernard Benjamin) Turner. At Hopkins, Turner worked with John Jacob Abel and Leonard G. Rowntree on pioneering experiments in the field of renal dialysis.

June 1916: Committee named to formulate plans for new medical school building near Long Hospital.

June 1918: Governor James P. Goodrich invites public-spirited citizens to advance credit to the School of Medicine so that construction could begin on a new medical school building and asked the 1919 Indiana General Assembly to appropriate funds for the project.

September 1919: New Medical School Building (Emerson Hall) opens.

Difficult Times
1932-1945

Plans developed for the Indiana University School of Medicine had to be put on hold during the Depression because of budget and personnel constraints. At the height of the Depression, Willis D. Gatch, dean of the school from 1932 to 1946, even worried about meeting the payroll. However, with such programs as the Works Project Admmistration, expansion did not come to a standstill. In 1937 and 1938, the School of Medicine opened new buildings -- one in Bloomington and one in Indianapolis.

Across the country, medical school faculty enlisted in the armed forces at a much higher rate than did the general profession, and the Indiana University School of Medicine faculty proved no exception. Like others schools, Indiana University sponsored one of the country's 52 general hospital units, the 32nd General Hospital, which was among the first to be sent to France. At home. the School of Medicine was extremely short staffed; and, at the same time, demands on the Medical Center increased significantly. War conditions called medical schools to produce greater numbers of physicians for both military and civilian needs. During the War, the Indiana University School of Medicine participated in a national, accelerated education program that permitted new doctors to graduate in three rather than four years.

Although the staff was overloaded with teaching and clinical work, some faculty members were able to dedicate some time to war-related medical research. For the first time, the IU School of Medicine sought research contracts from federal agencies, setting important precedents for the post-war period.

 

Medical History:

1930: Kiwanis Unit added to Riley Hospital for Children. Indiana Kiwanis Clubs raised $150,000 to build this unit, the beginning of the Kiwanis association with Riley.

1931: Rotary Building opens as a children's convalescent home. Indiana Rotary Clubs raised over $275,000 to build this unit.

1932: Researchers discover riboflavin, or vitamin B3.

June 1932: Willis D. Gatch, M.D. is named dean of the IU School of Medicine.

June 1932: Clyde G. Culbertson, M.D. organizes and becomes head of the IU School of Medicine's Central Laboratory.

June 1932: J. O. Ritchey, M.D. became head of the Department of Medicine.

1933: As part of Indiana's Executive Reorganization Act of 1933, the State Board of Health combined its laboratories with those of the university hospitals. Culbertson became director of the two laboratories. Thurman B. Rice, M.D. who had been a member of the Department of Pathology and Bacteriology since 1920, was appointed assistant secretary of the state agency and was given the title professor of bacteriology and public health at the IU School of Medicine.

1933: Dean Willis B. Gatch establishes the Department of Medical Illustration. To head the department, Gatch hired James Glore, an Indianapolis resident and recent graduate of The Chicago Art Institute. By 1965, Glore had built the one-man shop in Emerson Hall to an eight-person unit, complete with photographers, chartists, and a medical illustrator. Today the 27-member department, now known as the Office of Visual Media, provides video, electronic media and specialty printing services to the school.

1935: Hydrotherapeutic Pool for the treatment of polio added to Riley Hospital for Children. President Franklin D. Roosevelt visits patients at the facility in September 1936.

1936: The School of Medicine's Indianapolis campus officially became known as the IU Medical Center.

1936: Food and Drug Administration's Division of Pharmacology begins first animal testing to determine risks from lead arsenate.

1937: Rolla N. Harger donated patent for the 'Drunk-o-meter' to the IU Foundation -- the first ever held by this organization. The Drunk-o-meter was the predecessor to the modern Breathalyzer developed by Harger's student Robert F. Borkenstein.

1937: Clinical Building in Indianapolis completed using Public Works Administration (PWA) funds.

1937: Myers Hall in Bloomington completed using PWA funds.

1938: Indiana State Medical Association endorses nonprofit hospital insurance, which becomes known as Blue Cross.

1939: Faculty member Harold M. Trusler, Sr. receives national attention for his pioneering work in the treatment of burns

1939: Dr. Sid Robinson, from the Department of Physiology in Bloomington, begins important studies in the physiology of exercise and temperature regulation in collaboration with Harvard physiologists.

1939: Native Hoosier Louis Mazzini develops a test for syphilis.

1939: State Board of Health Building (Fesler Hall) completed on the Medical Center campus.

Growing Pains
1914-1931

Between 1914 and 1919, the School of Medicine continued to hold classes in the Indiana Medical College building in downtown Indianapolis. Built in 1895, this building had become outmoded and was a firetrap. Two fires broke out in the building during 1916-1917. Its location away from the new teaching hospital was also inconvenient. The School of Medicine struggled to get the funding necessary to build a new Medical School Building adjacent to Long Hospital. When it opened in September 1919, the IU Medical Center was born.

Following Robert W. Long's donation, which enabled the School to build its own teaching hospital, the School of Medicine attracted a number of other large gifts that resulted in the construction of such facilities as the James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children (1924) and Coleman Hospital for Women (1927). Ironically, because each new building required an operating and maintenance fund, the Indiana University School of Medicine's success caused financial difficulty. In 1927, Burton D. Myers, who was then serving as assistant dean, reported to the American Association of Medical Colleges that the university finding it increasingly difficult to carry out its educational program.

 

Medical History:

1921: Friends of beloved Hoosier poet James Whitcomb Riley establish an association to memorialize his legacy. The James Whitcomb Riley Memorial Association formalizes plans to build a children's hospital and enters a partnership with the Indiana University School of Medicine to operate the hospital. The group is now known as the Riley Children's Foundation and still raises funds to benefit the hospital.

1921: In Toronto, Frederick G. Banting and C. H. Best isolate insulin, which is first used to treat a person with diabetes a year later.

1922: Elmer V. McCollum and associates identify Vitamin D.

1922-1924: Riley Hospital fund-raising campaign. More than 44,000 Hoosiers contributed. The New York Times estimated that this amounted to "one person in every hundred" Indiana residents.

1923: Eli Lilly and Company begins distributing insulin as a treatment for diabetes.

October 7, 1924: Riley Hospital for Children dedicated on James Whitcomb Riley's birthday. The hospital admitted its first patient, Mark Noble, a ten-year-old polio victim.

December 1924: William H. Coleman donates $250,000 for the erection of a women's hospital in memory of his stepdaughter, Suemma Coleman Atkins, who died in childbirth.

1926: Researchers describe vitamins B1 and B2

October 1927: Coleman Hospital for Women opens. It is the first hospital in Indiana exclusively dedicated to obstetrics and gynecology.

1928: Addition to Emerson Hall completed.

1928: Sir Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin, although it does not become available in a therapeutically usable form until 1940.

1928: Ball Residence for Nurses completed. Built from funds donated by the Ball brothers of Muncie, Indiana, as a matching challenge grant during a Riley Hospital for Children fund raising campaign in 1926.

New Directions
1946-1964

In 1947, John D. VanNuys officially became the first full-time dean of the School of Medicine. Under VanNuys's administration, all four years of the undergraduate medical course were consolidated in Indianapolis. Following national patterns, external research funding increased dramatically, from $11 thousand in 1946 to $5 million in 1963. Full-time faculty members replaced an older generation of physicians who had continued their private practices while teaching part-time at the school.

Despite rapid expansion of the campus during this period, some of the School's facilities could not keep up with growth. Adult clinical facilities at Long Hospital became dangerously inadequate. Caseloads in some medical categories dropped below that required by specialty boards for resident experiences. In 1964, VanNuys died suddenly of a heart attack before plans for a new university hospital could be completed.

 

Medical History:

1942: World War II accelerated medical school curriculum begins.

May 1942: Activation of the 32nd General Hospital, led by Cyrus J. Clark. Forty-seven doctors and seventy-two nurses from the IU Medical Center took commissions in this hospital, which would be "among the first to be sent to France." The Thirty-Second General Hospital followed the allied forces as they drove eastward, moving from France to Liege, Belgium. During the last stages of the conflict in Europe, the hospital became the "first major Army medical installation to be established in Germany," opening in Aachen on March 3, 1945.

1942: Annex added to Ball Residence. This was the only construction project that IU carried out during World War II.

1946: Willis D. Gatch resigns as dean of the School of Medicine as a result of a disagreement with Indiana University president Herman B Wells over the vision for the School.

July 1946: John D. VanNuys (MD, IU, 1936) accepts position as executive secretary of interim committee designated to administer the School of Medicine following Gatch's resignation as dean. In September 1947, VanNuys is officially named dean.

1946: Clinical clerkships instituted in senior curriculum.

1947: Medical Research Building expansion begins with a $250,000 five-year grant from the Riley Memorial Association (now known as the Riley Children's Foundation).

1948: IU School of Medicine Alumni Association is organized.

1948: Harris B. Shumacker hired as chairman of the Department of Surgery. A leader in cardiovascular surgery, in 1954 Shumacker performed the first open-heart surgery in Indianapolis using a heart-lung bypass machine. He also brought distinction to the IU Medical Center by perfecting procedures to correct congenital heart defects. Under his direction, IU School of Medicine surgical research teams pioneered the use of synthetic grafts to replace damaged blood vessels, experimented with renal transplants, and tested surgical glues. Shumacker played a significant role not only in strengthening his department but also in the drive to enhance the school's research funding.

1949: Fesler Hall added to university facilities as Laboratory-Science Building

1949: Addition to Clinical Building expands the Department of Radiology.

1950: A research unit opens at Riley Hospital for Children.

1951: A major study at IU Bloomington documents flouride's role in preventing dental cavities.

1952: Boston cardiologist Paul M. Zoll develops external cardiac pacemaker.

1952: Roudebush VA Medical Center opens, staffed by IU School of Medicine physicians.

1952: Jonas Salk produces polio vaccine and mass inoculation of school kids begins in 1954.

1952: LaRue Carter Hospital opens. Staffed by IU School of Medicine physicians, this hospital provided a long-awaited psychiatric facility at the IU Medical Center.

1952: C. Walton Lillehei performs first successful open heart surgery using heart-lung machine at Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia.

1953: Student Union and Food Services Building opens at the Indianapolis campus.

1953: James Watson and Francis Crick decode the mystery of DNA. Watson received his doctorate in zoology from Indiana University in 1950.

1954: Cancer Research Wing opened at Riley Hospital for Children.

1954: Camp Riley for youth with physical disabilities is established at Bradford Woods at a cost of nearly $400,000.

1954: First successful kidney transplant performed at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston

1954: First Renal Dialysis Unit opens at the IU Medical Center under the direction of George T. Lukemeyer, M.D., and Hunter Soper, M.D.

1957: Institute of Psychiatric Research opens under the direction of John I. Nurnberger, Sr., M.D.

1958: Medical Sciences Building (VanNuys Building) opens, which finally enabled all four years of the School of Medicine to take place in Indianapolis.

1958: John Hickam, M.D. replaces J. O. Ritchey as chairman of the Department of Medicine. Hickam became a national figure during his tenure at IU. Charles Fisch, M.D., founding director of the Krannert Institute of Cardiology, characterized him as a "genius" and always thought of him as "bringing 20th-century [academic medicine] to Indiana."

1958: Kiwanis Diagnostic and Outpatient Clinic opens at Riley Hospital for Children. Because it made significant changes in the provision of pediatric services, this clinic brought national attention to the School of Medicine.

1959: Medical Sciences Program, which offers the first two years of medical school, begins on the IU Bloomington campus.

1959: Division of Allied Health Sciences established. Programs continue today in IUSM's Health Professions Programs and IU's School of Health and Rehabilitation Services, both on the Indianapolis campus.

New Horizons
1965-1973

VanNuys's successor, Glenn W. Irwin, Jr. fought to get a new adult clinical facility built, adding nearly 250 new adult patient beds. In 1970, University Hospital received its first patients, helping to meet the growing needs of clinical care driven by the passage of Medicare and Medicaid. A new addition to Riley Hospital followed in 1971. During this period, the number of basic science and clinical faculty increased; and departments were encouraged to develop their own practice plans.

In 1969, the School of Medicine became part of IUPUI. As the oldest and largest component of Indiana University located in Indianapolis, the School of Medicine has played a leading role in the development of the Indianapolis campus.

Irwin also oversaw implementation of a new medical school curriculum and piloted the Indiana University School of Medicine through the so-called national doctor shortage of the mid-1960s. Concerned that Indiana was producing and keeping too few physicians, the Indiana State Legislature repeatedly demanded that the School of Medicine increase its admissions. However, the Medical Center's facilities limited this expansion. Communities such as Muncie, Terre Haute, South Bend, and Evansville vied for the privilege to open a second medical school in Indiana. At one point, a legislative study group recommended development of a new medical school at Ball State University.

In response, the Indiana University School of Medicine developed the "Indiana Plan" which called for a coordinated statewide system of undergraduate, graduate, and continuing medical education. Conceptualized to create "a medical school without walls, both in space and in time," the system developed under Irwin's direction was "the first comprehensive program to use all of the resources for medical education within an entire state, and to develop an integrated system of medical education which serve[d] physicians as well as medical students" anywhere within that state's borders. This innovative system has been so successful that many other institutions have adopted facets of it.

 

Medical History:

 

1960: FDA approves first oral contraceptive.

1961: The first federal grant from the National Institutes of Health comes to IUSM when the school receives $4.3 million from the NIH to establish a heart research center, with a specialized cardiopulmonary laboratory. The School also receives over $800,000 from the National Institute for Mental Health to establish a center for the study of schizophrenia in children.

1963: Dr. Harvey Feigenbaum develops the echocardiograph, a device that detects heart disease with sound waves. He then taught physicians around the world to use what is now the most common, non-invasive diagnostic device.

1963: Krannert Institute of Cardiology dedicated.

1964: Eli Lilly and Company develops the first cephalosporin antibiotic, introducing a new class of drugs for serious infections.

1965: Medicare and Medicaid are signed into law by President Johnson

March 1965: Glenn W. Irwin, Jr., M.D. becomes dean.

June 1965: Ground is finally broken for the new Indiana University Hospital.

April 1965: Indiana's first kidney transplant is performed at the Indiana University School of Medicine.

1965: U.S. Congress passes law requiring a warning label on cigarette packages: "Warning: Cigarette smoking may be hazardous to your health."

1965: Krannert Institute's Harvey Feigenbaum, M.D. draws national attention for his pioneering research in the use of echocardiography.

April 1966: The faculty Committee to Study Future Medical Education in Indiana presents its plan for a Statewide Medical Education System to a special state Legislative Study Committee on Medical Education.

1967: Regenstrief Institute for Health Care established with funding from Hoosier Samuel Regenstrief.

1967: Dr. Christian Barnard performs first human heart transplant.

1967: Indiana General Assembly approves Phase I of the Statewide Medical Education Program, which established internship/residency programs throughout the state and a statewide communications network.

1968: First human bone marrow transplant is conducted at the University of Minnesota.

1968: Statewide Medical Education pilot programs established at West Lafayettte and South Bend.

Continued Growth
1974-1982

During the 1970s and early 1980s, the School of Medicine continued to increase the number of faculty to provide comprehensive, expert care in every subspecialty of medicine and surgery. With rapid developments in science and medical technology, additional clinical and research centers opened. These facilities have helped to make the Indiana University Medical Center part of a medical education and health care system that is second to none.

In 1975, instead of permitting Marion County General Hospital (renamed Wishard Memorial Hospital) to languish, as did many municipal charity hospitals in the 1960s and 1970s, the School of Medicine stepped in and took over its management. In the process, the School integrated and coordinated the operation of Wishard into its own programs of teaching, research, and patient care. While keeping an important health care facility open, IU's management of Wishard has also improved the School's research and education programs.

 

Medical History:

January 1970: Indiana University Hospital opens.

1971: National Institutes of Health (NIH) funds the Hypertension Research Center at the IU School of Medicine.

1971: Statewide Medical Education Centers established. They allow students to do their first two years of medical school at one of 8 centers around the state: Fort Wayne, Evansville, Gary, Terre Haute, and Muncie, in addition to programs already in West Lafayette, South Bend, and Bloomington.

1971: Phase II of Riley Hospital for Children opens. This addition included the Parent-Care Pavilion, which provided housing for parents to live with and share in the care and therapy of their own children -- a revolutionary concept developed by Morris Green, Chairman of Pediatrics and Physician-in-Chief, at Riley.

1973: Otis Bowen (BA IU 1939, MD IU 1942) becomes the governor of Indiana, the first physician to assume the state's top position.

March 1974: Steven C. Beering, M.D., succeeds Glenn Irwin as dean.

1974: Faculty member Lawrence Einhorn, M.D., treats the first patient with cis-platinol, instituting a cure for testicular cancer.

1975: Patent granted for diagnostic x-ray system known as Computerized Axial Tomography, or CAT scan.

1975: Marion County General Hospital renamed Wishard Hospital. Marion County Health and Hospital Corporation vote to have the IU School of Medicine manage the facility.

1977: NIH funds the Diabetes Research and Training Center at the IU School of Medicine.

1977: NIH funds Multipurpose Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases Center.

1978: First test tube baby, Louise Brown, is born.

1979: Douglas Zipes, M.D., in collaboration with Medtronic Inc., invents the automatic cardioverter, a device that corrects heart arrhythmia. Dr. Zipes was the first in the world to implant it in patients with recurrent ventricular tachycardia.

1979: Richard Miyamoto performs Indiana's first cochlear implants in an adult. He performs Indiana's first cochlear implant in a child in 1983.

Increasing Complexity
1983-1994

In 1983, the School of Medicine was awarded a new contract with Wishard Memorial Hospital in which it was given fiscal and medical control of the facility. Patient care facilities enlarged with an addition to Riley Hospital (1986) and an Adult Outpatient Center (1992). The opening of a new Medical Research and Library building (1989) and several research institutes facilitated significant growth in research funding, from $17 million in 1983 to more than $78 million in 1993.

However, at the same time, the School was undergoing new stresses. Between 1991 and 1993, the state legislature drastically reduced the School's budget resulting in a $7 million deficit. This deficit threatened to close down part of the Statewide Medical Education System and led to the decision to merge the School's teaching hospitals with Methodist Hospital of Indiana.

 

Medical History:

1980: The 33rd assembly of the World Health Organization declares small pox eradicated.

1980: AIDS first recognized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

October 1982: First heart transplant takes place in Indiana at Methodist Hospital. Surgeon is Dr. Hal Halbrook.

1983: IU School of Medicine awarded fiscal and medical control of Wishard Memorial Hospital.

1983: Elks Cancer Research Center opens.

1983: Researchers at Dr. Luc Montagnier's lab at the Institut Pasteur, in France, isolate the virus that causes AIDS.

1983: In collaboration with the Harvard University School of Medicine, the Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics uses DNA markers to locate the first human disease gene (Huntington Disease).

July 1983: Walter J. Daly, M.D. becomes dean.

1985: The world's first DNA bank is established at Indiana University Medical Center.

1985: Dr. Jan Jansen performs Indiana’s first bone marrow transplant at Riley Hospital for Children. The IU School of Medicine bone marrow transplant program was the first in Indiana.

1986: Riley Hospital for Children Phase III completed.

1987: Walther Oncology Center established through funding from Joseph E. Walther, M.D.

1987: Prozac approved for the treatment of depression in the United States.

1987: NIH funds the Alcohol Research Center at the IU School of Medicine.

1987: The International Olympic Committee accredits the Department of Pathology's Drug Screening Laboratory.

1988: National Institute for Fitness and Sport (NIFS) established, providing a home for IU's sports medicine program.

1988: First liver transplant performed in Indiana at the IU Medical Center. The surgeons were Dr. Peter Friend and Dr. Ronald S. Filo.

October 1988: First pancreas transplant performed in Indiana, by Dr. Mark D. Pescovitz and Dr. Stephen Leapman.

1989: Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research is established, honoring the long-time Riley Memorial Association board member and Indiana University president and chancellor Herman B Wells. The association pledges $12 million to the center.

1989: Medical Research and Library Building opens, which houses the Ruth Lilly Medical Library and the Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics.

April 1989: First infant heart transplant takes place in Indiana. The patient was 10-month-old Megan Stedman. Dr. John Brown, on faculty at the IU School of Medicine, performed the surgery.

1989: The Indiana State Medical Association adopts an AIDS policy, stressing education and providing guidelines for care and testing.

New Challenges
1995-2003

The Indiana University School of Medicine and Methodist Hospital agreed to join forces in 1995. Completing the merger to form Clarian took two years, and the process was complicated. The Indiana University School of Medicine's challenge with Clarian is to carry off the same kind of success with this consolidation as it had when it integrated community hospitals into the Statewide Medical Education System.

Despite the Indiana University School of Medicine's difficulties, in the 1990s, it continued to advance, receiving national recognition in various research fields. Most recently, in 1999, the IU Cancer Center received National Cancer Institute designation as a clinical research center.

Responding to problems in medical education, the Indiana University School of Medicine initiated a curriculum review in 1992. Critics of the current situation stated that medical schools have taken on a corporate mentality. They complained that the country's medical schools have lost sight of ideals set in place at the beginning of the twentieth century. With the challenge "to do better" in preparing new physicians for medical practice in the twenty-first century, the School's faculty collectively designed a competency-based curriculum called "The Indiana Initiative." This curriculum moves away from the traditional subject-oriented curriculum toward a more integrated learning experience that emphasizes not only basic clinical skills and medical diagnosis but also the social and community contexts of health care, moral reasoning and ethical judgment, and effective communication. This curriculum was implemented during the 1999/2000 academic year. The first class to graduate under this system was the class of 2003.

The Indiana University School of Medicine has the opportunity to take a leading role in helping to determine the future of medicine in the United States through its research institutes that cross traditional specialty and School boundaries to join faculty who share an interest in advancing preventive medicine, health care cost containment, and the health care delivery system.

 

Medical History:

1990: Otis R. Bowen Research Center opens.

1990: Indiana University School of Medicine joins with the Moi University Faculty of Health Sciences in Eldoret, Kenya, to build a unique exchange program.

1990: NIH funds Midwest Sexually Transmitted Disease Collaborative Research Center.

1990: Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research opens.

1990: IU Surgeon John Brown performs the world’s first twin-to-twin heart transplant. Paige Whisman, born with an uncorrectable heart defect, received her brother Tyler’s heart after he was pronounced brain dead at birth.

1991: University Hospital Ambulatory Care Center opens at IUSM.

1991: NIH funds Alzheimer Disease Center.

1991: Breast Care and Research Center established.

1992: Congress passes the Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA) which imposed standards for mammography personnel, equipment, record keeping and regular FDA inspections of mammography facilities.

1992: National Cancer Institute awards planning grant to the IU School of Medicine for a comprehensive cancer center.

1993: Radiology Oncology Linear Facility opens.

1994: Discovery that autologous bone marrow transplant can improve survival rates for patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).

1994: The Riley Hospital for Children Cancer Center opens.

1994: New food labels required providing clearly readable information on fat, cholesterol, fiber and key nutrients.

1995: NIH establishes one of three National Gene Vector Laboratories at the IU School of Medicine.

November 1995: Robert W. Holden, M.D. becomes dean.

1996: Indiana Cancer Pavilion dedicated, with $10 million in federal funding.

1996: FDA approves chicken pox vaccine.

1996: Advanced Research and Technology Institute (ARTI) is established to nurture research and economic development at Indiana University.

1997: Dolly, the first clone of an adult sheep, is born.

1997: Clarian Health Partners, Inc. created, leveraging the expertise of IU School of Medicine faculty at three Indianapolis hospitals: Methodist, Riley Hospital for Children, and Indiana University Hospital.

1997: IU Cancer Research Institute opens with $10 million in federal funding.

1997: IU Center for Aging Research opens.

1997: Department of Health and Human Services funds a National Center for Excellence in Women's Health at Indiana University School of Medicine.

1997: First hospital in the world to successfully transplant all intra-abdominal organs.

1998: Department of Public Health is established.

1998: Addition to VanNuys Medical Science Building complete.

1998: Lilly Clinical Research Facility moved from Wishard to University Hospital.

1998: NIH funds Mid-American Adolescent Sexually Transmitted Disease Cooperative Research Center.

1999: IU Cancer Center receives National Cancer Institute designation.

1999: Core Center of Excellence in Molecular Hematology funded by National Institute of Diabetes and Kidney Diseases.

1999: National Institute for Fitness and Sport (NIFS) Research Centers open.

1999: Addition completed to Roudebush VA Medical Center for IU School of Medicine research.

July 2000: D. Craig Brater, M.D. named dean.

2000: Riley Hospital Outpatient Center opens.

2000: Lilly Endowment awards the IU School of Medicine $105 million for the Indiana Genomics Initiative (INGEN).

2000: World’s first blood and marrow transplant using genetic testing on an embryo to find a suitable cord-blood donor.

2001: Clarian Cardiovascular Center opens.

2001: Radiology Education and Research Center opens on North Senate Avenue.

2001: IU Center for Bioethics established.

2002: Lilly, Purdue University, and IU form the Proteomics Consortium.

2002: Central Indiana Life Sciences Initiative (CILSI) established. This non-profit partnership brings together IU and its School of Medicine, Purdue, the Central Indiana Corporate Partnership, the City of Indianapolis and members of the Indiana Health Industry Forum.

2002: The IUSM Division of Nephrology receives NIH funding to establish a George M. O'Brien Research Center for Advanced Renal Microscopic Analysis.

2003: Center for Bioinformatics opens, headed by A. Keith Dunker, Ph.D.

April 2003: Dedication of the Biotechnology Research and Training Center (BRTC)

September 2003:The Research II building is opened and dedicated.

September 2003: The Stark Neuroscience Research Center opens, directed by Gerry Oxford, Ph.D. The center, located in the Research II building, is the gift of Dr. Paul and Carole Stark.

2003: The People Mover monorail from Methodist Hospital to the IU Medical Center opens.

July 2003: First small bowel transplant in Indiana is performed at Riley Hospital for Children. The lead surgeon was Joseph Tector, M.D., assistant professor at the Indiana University School of Medicine.

August 2003: The first 4-organ transplant in Indiana is performed at the IU School of Medicine. The procedure is one of the first ever performed in the United States. A 14-month-old Clayton, Ind., child received new intestines, stomach, liver and pancreas. Lead surgeon Joseph Tector, MD, and Jonathan Fridell, MD, performed the nine-hour procedure. Both are assistant professors of surgery at the IU School of Medicine and members of the Clarian Transplant Center. The child later died.

August 2003: Dr. Daniel Wurtz is among a handful of surgeons to implant a growable bone prosthesis. A nine-year-old Zionsville, Ind., girl received the prosthesis in her femur. The prosthesis is called Repiphysis and marks a huge advance for children with bone cancer. It extends the limb of youngsters during normal growth cycles.

September 2003: "The Indiana University School of Medicine DNA Tower," a 19-foot sculpture by glass artist Dale Chihuly is unveiled in the Morris Mills Atrium of the VanNuys Medical Science Building. The artwork symbolizes the spirit of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the double-helix molecule that holds the secret of life.

September 2003: The Stark Neuroscience Research Institute is dedicated. The institute focuses on applying advances in molecular, genetic and imaging technologies to fundamental questions about brain function, dysfunction and development. The SNRI was made possible by a $16 million bequest from Dr. Paul and Carole Stark in November 2000. Its first executive directer is Gerry Oxford, Ph.D., professor of pharmacology and toxicology.

September 2003: Research II building is dedicated. The 128,215-square-foot facility houses the Stark Neurosciences Research Institute, Walther Oncology Center, Indiana Center of Excellence in Biomedical Imaging and the Indiana Center for Biological Microscopy. Construction was made possible by a $16 million gift from Dr. Paul and Carole Stark to establish the Stark Institute; Clarian Health Partners contributed $10 million and the Riley Children's Foundation donated $2 million.

September 2003: The IU School marks its Centennial school year on September 23. Highlights include a 4-foot by 8-foot, Indiana-shaped cake and a videoconferencing hookup that allows all eight centers to celebrate together.

January 2004: IUSM Biochemist Roger Roeske, PhD, is the first IU faculty member to discover the compound for a drug that made it to the market. The drug, Plenaxis (tm), received FDA approval for the treatment of prostate cancer.

Medical History:

July 2000: D. Craig Brater, M.D. named dean.

2000: Riley Hospital Outpatient Center opens.

2000: Lilly Endowment awards the IU School of Medicine $105 million for the Indiana Genomics Initiative (INGEN).

2000: World’s first blood and marrow transplant using genetic testing on an embryo to find a suitable cord-blood donor.

2001: Clarian Cardiovascular Center opens.

2001: Radiology Education and Research Center opens on North Senate Avenue.

2001: IU Center for Bioethics established.

2002: Lilly, Purdue University, and IU form the Proteomics Consortium.

2002: Central Indiana Life Sciences Initiative (CILSI) established. This non-profit partnership brings together IU and its School of Medicine, Purdue, the Central Indiana Corporate Partnership, the City of Indianapolis and members of the Indiana Health Industry Forum.

2002: The IUSM Division of Nephrology receives NIH funding to establish a George M. O'Brien Research Center for Advanced Renal Microscopic Analysis.

2003: Center for Bioinformatics opens, headed by A. Keith Dunker, Ph.D.

April 2003: Dedication of the Biotechnology Research and Training Center (BRTC)

September 2003:The Research II building is opened and dedicated.

September 2003: The Stark Neuroscience Research Center opens, directed by Gerry Oxford, Ph.D. The center, located in the Research II building, is the gift of Dr. Paul and Carole Stark.

2003: The People Mover monorail from Methodist Hospital to the IU Medical Center opens.

July 2003: First small bowel transplant in Indiana is performed at Riley Hospital for Children. The lead surgeon was Joseph Tector, M.D., assistant professor at the Indiana University School of Medicine.

August 2003: The first 4-organ transplant in Indiana is performed at the IU School of Medicine. The procedure is one of the first ever performed in the United States. A 14-month-old Clayton, Ind., child received new intestines, stomach, liver and pancreas. Lead surgeon Joseph Tector, MD, and Jonathan Fridell, MD, performed the nine-hour procedure. Both are assistant professors of surgery at the IU School of Medicine and members of the Clarian Transplant Center. The child later died.

August 2003: Dr. Daniel Wurtz is among a handful of surgeons to implant a growable bone prosthesis. A nine-year-old Zionsville, Ind., girl received the prosthesis in her femur. The prosthesis is called Repiphysis and marks a huge advance for children with bone cancer. It extends the limb of youngsters during normal growth cycles.

September 2003: "The Indiana University School of Medicine DNA Tower," a 19-foot sculpture by glass artist Dale Chihuly is unveiled in the Morris Mills Atrium of the VanNuys Medical Science Building. The artwork symbolizes the spirit of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the double-helix molecule that holds the secret of life.

September 2003: The Stark Neuroscience Research Institute is dedicated. The institute focuses on applying advances in molecular, genetic and imaging technologies to fundamental questions about brain function, dysfunction and development. The SNRI was made possible by a $16 million bequest from Dr. Paul and Carole Stark in November 2000. Its first executive directer is Gerry Oxford, Ph.D., professor of pharmacology and toxicology.

September 2003: Research II building is dedicated. The 128,215-square-foot facility houses the Stark Neurosciences Research Institute, Walther Oncology Center, Indiana Center of Excellence in Biomedical Imaging and the Indiana Center for Biological Microscopy. Construction was made possible by a $16 million gift from Dr. Paul and Carole Stark to establish the Stark Institute; Clarian Health Partners contributed $10 million and the Riley Children's Foundation donated $2 million.

September 2003: The IU School marks its Centennial school year on September 23. Highlights include a 4-foot by 8-foot, Indiana-shaped cake and a videoconferencing hookup that allows all eight centers to celebrate together.

January 2004: IUSM Biochemist Roger Roeske, PhD, is the first IU faculty member to discover the compound for a drug that made it to the market. The drug, Plenaxis (tm), received FDA approval for the treatment of prostate cancer.

2005: IUSM-South Bend opens new center with University of Notre Dame.
IU School of Medicine and Clarian Health begin expansion of IU Simon Cancer Center.

2006: The Fairbanks Institute is established by BioCrossroads with IU School of Medicine and Regenstrief Institute.

2007: Health Information and Translational Sciences building dedicated; this extends the IUSM campus to the Indianapolis Central Canal. The first class of PhD students enter the Indiana  BioMedical Gateway Program.

2008: The Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center opens a new patient care facility. IUSM Dean’s offices move to Richard Fairbanks Hall on the Indianapolis
Central Canal.

2009: Joseph E. Walther Hall building is dedicated. IUSM-Fort Wayne opens the Medical Education and Research Building. The Simulation Center at Fairbanks Hall opens.

2010: Lilly Endowment Inc. boosts research at IUSM with a $60 million grant for the Indiana Physician Scientist Inititive